用vsFTPd 架设Linux FTP 服务器

1。查看是否安装了vsFTPd软件
[root@linuxsir001 root]# rpm -qa | grep vsftpd
如果没有任何显示,说明没有把vsFTPd安装上,如果出现的是下面的这样的提示,就证明已经安装上了。

[root@linuxsir001 root]# rpm -qa | grep vsftpd
vsftpd-1.1.3-8

我以Redhat 9.0,以其自带的vsFTPd包vsftpd-1.1.3-8版本来为本帖约定。

[root@linuxsir001 root]# rpm -ivh vsftpd*.rpm

2。打开vsFTPd服务器。

[root@linuxsir001 root]# ntsysv

把vsftpd服务器打开,也就是在运行 ntsysv命令后,把vsftpd服务选中。
[*] vsftpd

3。运行/etc/init.d/vsftpd start

[root@linuxsir001 root]# /etc/init.d/vsftpd start
为 vsftpd 启动 vsftpd: [ 确定 ]
[root@linuxsir001 root]#

4。配制vsFTPd,vsFTPd的运行有两种模式,一种是standalone “initd”模式,另外一种是xinetd模式,上面我们所说的就是standalone “initd”运行模式。两种模式运行机制不是相同的,stardard initd模式,适合专业FTP,且FTP总是一直有人访问,占用资源也是比较大,如果您的FTP总是有人访问和登入。就要用这种模式。如果您的FTP访问人数比较小,建议您用xinetd模式。xinetd模式,是当用户请求时,vsFTPd才会启动。

不同的环境,当然得用不同的启动模式。
1]我们主要把vsFTPd的配制文件改一下就行了。配制文件在/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf,用您喜欢的编辑器打开。请参考下面的配制文件。
# Example config file /etc/vsftpd.conf
#
# The default compiled in settings are very paranoid. This sample file
# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
#
# Allow anonymous FTP?
anonymous_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
local_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
write_enable=YES
#
# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd’s)
local_umask=022
#
# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
#anon_upload_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
# new directories.
#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
#
# Activate directory messages – messages given to remote users when they
# go into a certain directory.
dirmessage_enable=YES
#
# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.
xferlog_enable=YES
#
# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
connect_from_port_20=YES
#
# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
# a different user. Note! Using “root” for uploaded files is not
# recommended!
#chown_uploads=YES
#chown_username=whoever
#
# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown
# below.
#xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log
#
# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format
xferlog_std_format=YES
#
# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
#idle_session_timeout=600
#
# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.
#data_connection_timeout=120
#
# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the
# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.
#nopriv_user=ftpsecure
#
# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not
# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,
# however, may confuse older FTP clients.
#async_abor_enable=YES
#
# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore
# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII
# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.
# Beware that turning on ascii_download_enable enables malicious remote parties
# to consume your I/O resources, by issuing the command “SIZE /big/file” in
# ASCII mode.
# These ASCII options are split into upload and download because you may wish
# to enable ASCII uploads (to prevent uploaded scripts etc. from breaking),
# without the DoS risk of SIZE and ASCII downloads. ASCII mangling should be
# on the client anyway..
#ascii_upload_enable=YES
#ascii_download_enable=YES
#
# You may fully customise the login banner string:
#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.
#
# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently
# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.
#deny_email_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails
#
# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home
# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of
# users to NOT chroot().
#chroot_list_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list
#
# You may activate the “-R” option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by
# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large
# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as “ncftp” and “mirror” assume
# the presence of the “-R” option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.
#ls_recurse_enable=YES

pam_service_name=vsftpd
userlist_enable=YES
#enable for standalone mode
listen=YES
tcp_wrappers=YES

2]更改完配制文件后,我们可以用下面的命令来重启vsFTPd服务器

[root@linuxsir001 root]# /etc/init.d/vsftpd restart
关闭 vsftpd: [ 确定 ]
为 vsftpd 启动 vsftpd: [ 确定 ]
[root@linuxsir001 root]#

3]以匿名方式来访问测试,在text模式下:

注意:在text模式下,要用用户名ftp,密码ftp来访问,这才是在text中匿名访问FTP。看如下的操作:

[root@linuxsir001 root]# ftp 192.168.0.1
Connected to 192.168.0.1.
220 (vsFTPd 1.1.3)
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
KERBEROS_V4 rejected as an authentication type
Name (192.168.0.1:root): ftp 这里写上ftp
331 Please specify the password.
Password:[这里添写ftp的密码],匿名登入密码也是ftp
230 Login successful. Have fun.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> ls
227 Entering Passive Mode (192,168,0,1,137,151)
150 Here comes the directory listing.
drwxr-xr-x 6 0 0 4096 May 25 13:54 RedHat90
drwxr-xr-x 2 0 0 4096 Feb 28 19:21 pub
226 Directory send OK.
ftp>
那匿名用户所访问的是哪个目录?是/var/ftp这个目录

出现问题的解决:有时出错,是因为没有ftp和nobody用户,所以要在系统中添加这两个用户,一般的情况下,这两个用户在系统中是存在的。看下面的操作。
[root@linuxsir001 root]# adduser ftp
adduser: user ftp exists
[root@linuxsir001 root]# adduser nobody
adduser: user nobody exists

从上面的操作中可知ftp和nobody用户是存在的,所以没有必要添加ftp和nobody用户了。如果不存在,一定要添加这两个用户,否则会出现匿名用户不能访问的情况。

4]如果要以系统中存在的普通用户登入FTP,也没有什么可以设置的,添加一个用户就行。比如我要添加beinan这个用户,就要用下面的办法

[root@linuxsir001 root]# adduser beinan
[root@linuxsir001 root]# passwd beinan
Changing password for user beinan.
New password:
BAD PASSWORD: it does not contain enough DIFFERENT characters
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root@linuxsir001 root]#

这样的话,就在/home目录中出现一个beinan的用户目录:如下:

[root@linuxsir001 root]# ls /home/
beinan
如果我们想让beinan这个用户作为虚拟用户,也就是说,beinan这个用户是不能登入系统的,只能是登入FTP。 那这样的用户应该如何添加呢??

[root@linuxsir001 backupNow]# adduser -g ftp -s /sbin/nologin beinan
[root@linuxsir001 backupNow]# passwd beinan
Changing password for user beinan.
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root@linuxsir001 backupNow]#

注:这仅仅是vsFTPd添加虚拟用户的一个方法,还有更好的办法需要我们去学习!另外的办法也在测试之中。严格上来说,这种办法不能算虚拟用户。还有另外的一个办法,就是通过pam认证,用db_load来添加用户,目前我也弄成功了,不过相对要复杂一点。正在测试之中。
如果我们想把用户目录定位到别的目录应该怎么办呢??这个也比较简单,看一下useradd就比较明白了。比如我想添加beinan这个用户,并把目录放在/opt目录中:如下操作:

[root@linuxsir001 root]# adduser -d /opt/beinan beinan
[root@linuxsir001 root]# passwd beinan
Changing password for user beinan.
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

如果是添加虚拟用户,也就是不让用户登入系统,只能登入FTP的用户。如果我们想把beinan这个用户目录定位在/opt/beinan这个目录中,根据上面的方法。我们应该如下操作
[root@linuxsir001 backupNow]# adduser -d /opt/beinan -g ftp -s /sbin/nologin beinan
[root@linuxsir001 backupNow]# passwd beinan
Changing password for user beinan.
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root@linuxsir001 backupNow]#

看一下是不是已经成功添加到了beinan这个用户,并把beinan的家目录放在了/opt目录中呢??

[root@linuxsir001 root]# ls /opt/
beinan

证明已经成功。

我们可以在text模式下以beinan用户登入,然后来访问ftp。

[root@linuxsir001 root]# ftp 192.168.0.1
Connected to 192.168.0.1.
220 (vsFTPd 1.1.3)
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
KERBEROS_V4 rejected as an authentication type
Name (192.168.0.1:root): beinan
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230 Login successful. Have fun.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp>

是不是成功了???

我们也可以用gftp来访问beinan用户,并上传相应的东西,所传上的东西就放在beinan用户所在的家目录中,普通用户的家目录在哪里,写您所用的添加用户的方法有关。我在前面已经说了两种办法,一种是默认的添加方法,就是放在/home目录中。

在本例中,我是采用默认的添加用户的方法。也就是不特别指定用户用户,这样的话,用户目录就在/home目录中。比如用beinan登入FTP时,访问的就是/home/beinan这个目录。让传的东西也在这个目录中。

那匿名用户所访问的是哪个目录呢???

应该是:/var/ftp这个目录

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